URL Encoding reference – HTML

URL Encoding Reference

A URL is an address for a website. Just like postal addresses have to follow a specific format to be understood by the postman, URLs have to follow a format to be understood and get you to the right location.

There are only certain characters that are allowed in the URL string, alphabetic characters, numerals, and a few characters ; , / ? : @ & = + $ - _ . ! ~ * ' ( ) # that can have special meanings.

Reserved Characters:

CharacterMeaning
:Separate protocol (http) from address
/Separate domain and directories
#Separate anchors
?Separate query string
&Separate query elements
@Separate username and password from domain
%Indicates an encoded character
+Indicates a space

Encoding:

Any character that is not an alphabetic character, a number, or a reserved character being used needs to be encoded.

URLs use the ASCII (“American Standard Code for Information Interchange”) character-set and so encoding must be to a valid ASCII format.

There are functions in most web languages to do this encoding for you, for example in JavaScript encodeURI() and in PHP rawurlencode().

CharacterEncoded
space%20
!%21
%22
#%23
$%24
%%25
&%26
%27
(%28
)%29
*%2A
+%2B
,%2C
%2D
.%2E
/%2F
0%30
1%31
2%32
3%33
4%34
5%35
6%36
7%37
8%38
9%39
:%3A
;%3B
<%3C
=%3D
>%3E
?%3F
@%40
A%41
B%42
C%43
D%44
E%45
F%46
G%47
H%48
I%49
J%4A
K%4B
L%4C
M%4D
N%4E
O%4F
P%50
Q%51
R%52
S%53
T%54
U%55
V%56
W%57
X%58
Y%59
Z%5A
[%5B
\%5C
]%5D
^%5E
_%5F
`%60
a%61
b%62
c%63
d%64
e%65
f%66
g%67
h%68
i%69
j%6A
k%6B
l%6C
m%6D
n%6E
o%6F
p%70
q%71
r%72
s%73
t%74
u%75
v%76
w%77
x%78
y%79
z%7A
{%7B
}%7D
~%7E
¢%A2
£%A3
¥%A5
§%A7
«%AB
¬%AC
¯%AD
º%B0
±%B1
ª%B2
,%B4
µ%B5
»%BB
¼%BC
½%BD
¿%BF
À%C0
Á%C1
Â%C2
Ã%C3
Ä%C4
Å%C5
Æ%C6
Ç%C7
È%C8
É%C9
Ê%CA
Ë%CB
Ì%CC
Í%CD
Î%CE
Ï%CF
Ð%D0
Ñ%D1
Ò%D2
Ó%D3
Ô%D4
Õ%D5
Ö%D6
Ø%D8
Ù%D9
Ú%DA
Û%DB
Ü%DC
Ý%DD
Þ%DE
ß%DF
à%E0
á%E1
â%E2
ã%E3
ä%E4
å%E5
æ%E6
ç%E7
è%E8
é%E9
ê%EA
ë%EB
ì%EC
í%ED
î%EE
ï%EF
ð%F0
ñ%F1
ò%F2
ó%F3
ô%F4
õ%F5
ö%F6
÷%F7
ø%F8
ù%F9
ú%FA
û%FB
ü%FC
ý%FD
þ%FE
ÿ%FF

Example:

encodeURI(Tim Berners Lee); // Tim%20Berners%20Lee

More Information:

MDN encodeURI()

HTML URL Encoding Reference

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