C++ Operators


title: Operators

Operators :

  • Operators let you perform operations on your data.
  • The data that is being operated on is called the operand .
  • The different types of operators in C++ are :
  • OPERANDS are the data on which the operator performs certain commands.
  • Operators are of 3 types : unary(works on 1 operand), binary(works on 2 operands) , ternary(works on 3 operands).

1 The I/O operators –

  • These operators allow you to direct input and output. The Input oerator “>>” ## is used to read data from standard input (the “cin” statement) . The Output operator “<<” is used to send output in the cout statement.

2 The Arithmetic operators –

  • These operators allow you to perform basic arithmetic operations.
  1. The + operator adds the two operands.
  2. The - operator subtracts the two operands.
  3. The * operator multiplies the two operands.
  4. The / operator divides and gives the quotient of the two operands.
  5. The % operator divides and gives the remainder of the two operands. (Or, for the more mathematically inclined reader, a % b is essentially the result of “a mod b” Example of using arithmetic operators :
#include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int a = 5; //1st operand int b = 10; //2nd operand cout << "+ operator " << a+b << "n"; //Add cout << "- operator " << a-b << "n"; //Subtract cout << "* operator " << a*b << "n"; //Multiply cout << "/ operator " << b/a << "n"; //Find Quotient cout << "modulus operator " << b%a << "n"; //Find remainder return 0; }

OUTPUT :

+ operator 15 - operator -5 * operator 50 / operator 2 modulus operator 0

Try the code yourself ! 🙂

The increment operator :

  • ++ is known as the increment operator. It increases the value of an integer variable by 1.

The 2 types of increment :

  • Pre increment first increments the value and then uses it. Example : int a ; ++a;
  • Post increment first uses the variable then increments it. Example : int b; b++;

The decrement operator :

  • -- is known as the decrement operator. It decreases the value of an integer variable by 1.

The 2 types of decrement :

  • Pre decrement first decrements the value and then uses it. Example : int a ; --a;
  • Post decrement first uses the variable then decrements it. Example : int b; b--;

Example of Increment and decrement operators :

#include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int a = 3 ,b = 4; // INCREMENT cout<< "Value of int a PRE INCREMENTED : " << ++a << "n"; cout<< "Value of int b POST INCREMENTED : " << b++ << "n"; cout<< "Value of b is changed after using once : " << b << "n"; // DECREMENT cout << "n"; //go to next line a = 10; //Assigning a new value to a b = 10; //Assigning a new value to b cout << "Value of int a PRE DECREMENTED : " << --a << "n"; cout << "Value of int b POST DECREMENTED : " << b-- << "n"; cout << "Value of b is changed after using once : " << b << "n"; return 0; }

OUTPUT :

Value of int a PRE INCREMENTED : 4 Value of int b POST INCREMENTED : 4 Value of b is changed after using once : 5 Value of int a PRE DECREMENTED : 9 Value of int b POST DECREMENTED : 10 Value of b is changed after using once : 9

Try the code yourself ! 🙂

3 : Relational Operators :

  • These operators tell us the relation among 2 operands and return a boolean value(0 or 1). If the relation is true then it results into 1 . If the realtion is false then it results into 0.
  • The 6 relational operators are :
    1. Less than <
    2. Greater than >
    3. Less than or equal to <=
    4. Greater than or equal to >=
    5. Equal to ==
    6. Not equal to !=

4 : Logical Operators :

  • These operators combine expressions for logical operations . They are :
  1. Logical AND && : Evaluates to true if both values are true .
  2. Logical OR || : Evaluates to true if any value is true .
  3. Logical NOT ! : If expression is true then !expression is false. This operator reverses the truth value and is a unary operator. 5. Ternary Operators : The ?: operator is the ternary operator, or the conditional operator, becuase it can be used to substitute an if else statement, or even an if else if statement.
    The syntax:

condition ? ValueIfTrue : ValueIfFalse. This expands to:

if(condition) ValueIfTrue; else ValueIfFalse;

Calling ValueIfTrue a value is a bit wrong, since it need not be a number. Something like this:

condition ? FirstLevelTrueValue : ConditionIfFalse ? SecondLevelTrueValue : SecondLevelFalseValue also works, and is interpreted as the following if else if statement:

if(condition) FirstLevelTrueValue; else if(ConditionIfFalse) SecondLevelTrueValue; else SecondLevelFalseValue;

Similarly, nested if statements can also be made using ternary operators.

Camper , You now know what tokens are. The next article will be about CONGRATULATIONS

Good Luck to all of you

Happy Coding ! 🙂

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