## title: Operators

# Operators :

- Operators let you perform operations on your data.
- The data that is being operated on is called the
*operand*. - The different types of operators in C++ are :
*OPERANDS*are the data on which the operator performs certain commands.- Operators are of 3 types : unary(works on 1 operand), binary(works on 2 operands) , ternary(works on 3 operands).

### 1 The I/O operators –

- These operators allow you to direct input and output. The Input oerator “>>” ## is used to read data from standard input (the “cin” statement) . The Output operator “<<” is used to send output in the
`cout`

statement.

### 2 The Arithmetic operators –

- These operators allow you to perform basic arithmetic operations.

- The
`+`

operator*adds*the two operands. - The
`-`

operator*subtracts*the two operands. - The
`*`

operator*multiplies*the two operands. - The
`/`

operator*divides*and gives the*quotient*of the two operands. - The
`%`

operator*divides*and gives the*remainder*of the two operands. (Or, for the more mathematically inclined reader,`a % b`

is essentially the result of “a mod b” Example of using arithmetic operators :

```
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int a = 5; //1st operand
int b = 10; //2nd operand
cout << "+ operator " << a+b << "n"; //Add
cout << "- operator " << a-b << "n"; //Subtract
cout << "* operator " << a*b << "n"; //Multiply
cout << "/ operator " << b/a << "n"; //Find Quotient
cout << "modulus operator " << b%a << "n"; //Find remainder
return 0;
}
```

OUTPUT :

`+ operator 15 - operator -5 * operator 50 / operator 2 modulus operator 0`

### The increment operator :

`++`

is known as the increment operator. It increases the value of an integer variable by 1.

The 2 types of increment :

- Pre increment first increments the value and then uses it. Example :
`int a ; ++a;`

- Post increment first uses the variable then increments it. Example :
`int b; b++;`

### The decrement operator :

`--`

is known as the decrement operator. It decreases the value of an integer variable by 1.

The 2 types of decrement :

- Pre decrement first decrements the value and then uses it. Example :
`int a ; --a;`

- Post decrement first uses the variable then decrements it. Example :
`int b; b--;`

Example of Increment and decrement operators :

```
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int a = 3 ,b = 4;
// INCREMENT
cout<< "Value of int a PRE INCREMENTED : " << ++a << "n";
cout<< "Value of int b POST INCREMENTED : " << b++ << "n";
cout<< "Value of b is changed after using once : " << b << "n";
// DECREMENT
cout << "n"; //go to next line
a = 10; //Assigning a new value to a
b = 10; //Assigning a new value to b
cout << "Value of int a PRE DECREMENTED : " << --a << "n";
cout << "Value of int b POST DECREMENTED : " << b-- << "n";
cout << "Value of b is changed after using once : " << b << "n";
return 0;
}
```

OUTPUT :

`Value of int a PRE INCREMENTED : 4 Value of int b POST INCREMENTED : 4 Value of b is changed after using once : 5 Value of int a PRE DECREMENTED : 9 Value of int b POST DECREMENTED : 10 Value of b is changed after using once : 9`

### 3 : Relational Operators :

- These operators tell us the relation among 2 operands and return a boolean value(0 or 1). If the relation is
`true`

then it results into 1 . If the realtion is false then it results into 0. - The 6 relational operators are :
- Less than
`<`

- Greater than
`>`

- Less than or equal to
`<=`

- Greater than or equal to
`>=`

- Equal to
`==`

- Not equal to
`!=`

- Less than

### 4 : Logical Operators :

- These operators combine expressions for logical operations . They are :

- Logical AND
`&&`

: Evaluates to true if both values are true . - Logical OR
`||`

: Evaluates to true if any value is true . - Logical NOT
`!`

: If*expression*is true then*!expression*is false. This operator reverses the truth value and is a unary operator. 5. Ternary Operators : The`?:`

operator is the ternary operator, or the*conditional operator*, becuase it can be used to substitute an`if else`

statement, or even an`if else if`

statement.

The syntax:

`condition ? ValueIfTrue : ValueIfFalse`

. This expands to:

```
if(condition)
ValueIfTrue;
else ValueIfFalse;
```

Calling `ValueIfTrue`

a value is a bit wrong, since it need not be a number. Something like this:

`condition ? FirstLevelTrueValue : ConditionIfFalse ? SecondLevelTrueValue : SecondLevelFalseValue`

also works, and is interpreted as the following `if else if`

statement:

```
if(condition)
FirstLevelTrueValue;
else if(ConditionIfFalse)
SecondLevelTrueValue;
else SecondLevelFalseValue;
```

Similarly, nested `if`

statements can also be made using ternary operators.

*Camper , You now know what tokens are. The next article will be about CONGRATULATIONS*

**Good Luck to all of you**

**Happy Coding ! 🙂**

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